Wednesday, 23 April 2014

Coordination and Subordination
Coordination occurs between expressions of equal importance whereas subordination occurs between expressions of unequal importance (one clause subordinate to the other). These two are achieved with the help of conjunctions known as linking devices. 

Linking devices (comparison, contrast, additive, sequential)
Coordinators and subordinators are devices that link one sentence to another. Coordinators help form compound sentences and subordinators help form complex sentences.

1.1 Coordinators:
  · The ‘and’ group (addition) 
     The day was warm and humid.
       She was both kind and gentle.
       On the table there were cakes, biscuits and sandwiches.
       He took the lead and I followed him.
       He speaks French as well as writes it.
       She not only had the right qualifications but also experience appropriate to the job.
       Not only was the coat soft; it was also warm.
       You’re getting promoted; besides/ also/ in addition/ moreover/ furthermore you’ll
         be sent abroad for training.
            
  · The ‘but’ group (contrasting two ideas –opposed to each other)     
      My boss was angry but he listened to me patiently.
       My boss was angry; yet/ still/ however/ nevertheless he listened to me patiently.
       In spite of/ Despite/ Notwithstanding the fact that he was angry, my boss listened to
           me patiently.

  · The ‘or’ group (choice)
     Take it or leave it.
     Either I am right or you are.
     You must improve your sales (or) else you’ll lose your job.
     You must improve your sales; otherwise you’ll lose your job.
     Neither Shyam nor Jalaja is telling the truth.
     Shyam is not telling the truth, neither/ nor Jalaja is.
                  
  · The ‘so’ group (result)
     It was getting dark, so we went home.
      We worked until six; then we went home.
      He broke the rules of the school; therefore/ consequently/ accordingly/ hence
        he had to leave.
      He’s clever; only he can’t be trusted.
      Sometimes he is pleasant; again, he can be very unpleasant.

1.2 More about ‘and’, ‘or’ and ‘but’
      i. and
        · indicates sequence:
            He walked to his car and got into it.
             He lay on the bed and tried to sleep.
             She entered the church and knelt to pray.

        · expresses result/consequence:
           Miss another class and you’ll not be able to sit for the exam.
           I heard a commotion and went to see what it was all about.

         · introduces a contrast:
             I am composed and my brother is restless. (I am composed but my brother is restless)
             Susan finds every moment exciting and Sarah finds every moment dull.
                     (Susan finds every moment exciting but Sarah finds every moment dull.)

         · indicates the second action as something unexpected:
             He ran hard and (yet) he couldn’t catch the thief.
               (He ran hard but couldn’t catch the thief.)
     
          · implies a promise:
              Forget what you’ve seen and (then) I won’t tell anyone what you did yesterday.

         · suggests a condition:
            Ask me no questions and I’ll tell no lies. (If you ask no questions, I won’t have to tell
             lies.
             Give him an inch and he’ll take a yard. (If you aren’t careful, he’ll outwit you.)

         · conveys purpose:
             Go and ask him what he wants.
                I’ll come and see you soon.
                We stopped and bought some grocery.
                Write and ask him when he’s coming.
                 Come and help me to life this box. 

         · introduces a comment or a question:
              They dislike Murugan—and that’s not surprising in view of his behaviour
                ‘They talked for hours.’  ‘And what did they decide?’                 

         · communicates a threat:
              One more word from you, and I phone the police.
                   Miss another class and you won’t be allowed to write the exam.

         · means addition:
               Do it slowly and (also) carefully.     
               Can you read and (also) write?

         · adds emphasis:
                  I cooked lunch. And I ironed clothes.

         · shows that something is repeated or continuing:
                  He tried and tried but without success.
                  The headache got worse and worse.

         · shows important differences between things/people of the same kind:
                  I like city life but there are cities and cities.

Note: Try and… can be used instead of try to… to express encouragement or make
          promises:
            Try and talk to him.
             Do try and stop coughing.
             I’ll try and see you at the station.
             I’ll try and have the work finished by the weekend.

      ii. Or
          · means choice:
                  Take this shirt or that one.
                  Wait here or come with me.
          · refers to approximation:
                The fridge costs 15,000 or 16,000.
                  You may get 2 or 3% reduction.
                  It weighs a kilo or two.
          · introduces another possibility:
                  Is your sister older or younger than you?
                    Are you coming or not?
          · says why something must be true:
                  You must like her, or you wouldn’t be helping her.     
          · expresses uncertainty:
                   He’s a PR executive or something.
          · implies a negative condition:
                 Give me some money or (else) I’ll shoot.
                 Don’t be too long, or you’ll miss the bus.
                 They must like the house, or they wouldn’t be staying for so long.

      iii. But   
          · expresses unexpectedness:
                   He is poor but he is happy. [‘… and yet he is happy’]
                   He is rich but he is happy. [if wealth is considered a source of misery]
          · means however/despite:
                   I’d asked everybody but only a few came.
                   By the end of the day we were tired but happy.
          · menas except:
                   I had no sign but to resign. 
          · implies compulsion:
                   I’m sorry but I can’t stay any longer.
                  We’re sorry but we must report this.
          · indicates contrast:
                  I can’t attend the function but my wife will.
                  He lied, yes, but he did it to protect you.   

The fourth group of coordinators is prepositional phrases:
           in addition, in fact, in the meanwhile, on the contrary
You’re getting promoted; in addition, you’ll be sent abroad for training.
He doesn’t work hard; in fact, he’s incapable of hard work.
I’ll see you again next week; in the meanwhile, you must rest as much as possible.
It wasn’t terrible, as you imagined; on the contrary, I enjoyed every minute of it.

The fifth group of coordinators is: commas, semicolons, or colons
I looked round the room. Sam was repairing a TV set, Gupta was attending a call, Sharma was     
   cleaning up his desk. (commas)
He doesn’t work hard; he’s incapable of hard work. (semicolon)
He kicked open the door, revolver in hand: a dead man lay on the floor. (colon)

1. 3 Quasi-Coordinators     
         He writes lyrics as well as sing them.
         They sell books as well as newspapers.
         The speech addressed the young as much as the old.
         He is to be punished rather than (to be) pitied.
         We should take into account the motive more than the amount itself.
         His behaviour was unbecoming if not/ not to say rude.
         As the speaker rose to speak, several students left the hall, which was rude of them. 

1.4 Correlative Coordinators
    The following expressions in italics are correlative coordinators because they
    reinforce the relationship between expressions that are joined together:
         I have met both her mother and her father.
         You have met either her mother or her father.
         Either he could not come or he didn’t want to come.
         I have met neither her mother nor her father.
         I haven’t met either her mother or her father.


1.5 Other coordinators
There are others that function as coordinators:
I played tennis, for my wife went shopping. (here the first results from the second.)

                                          furthermore,
                                          besides,
You’re getting promoted; moreover, you’ll be sent abroad for training.
                                          also,
                                          still   


My boss was angry; however,        he listened to me patiently.   
                                 nevertheless,
                                 nonetheless,

It was getting dark; consequently, we went home.
                                accordingly,   
                                therefore
                               hence 

We worked until six; then we went home.   

He’s clever; only he can’t be trusted.      

Sometimes he’s pleasant; again, he can be very unpleasant.   

These link two simple sentences into compound sentences:
       · further, similarly, likewise, too                                             ¬ addition
       · first, in the first place, next, second, last but not least,
            last, finally, ultimately, in the end                                       ¬ sequence
       · namely, that is [to say], for instance, for example, indeed, regardless,
           of course, after all, specifically                                             ¬explanation
       · hence, for that reason                                                             ¬reason
       · consequently, therefore, as a result                                        ¬result
       · under these/such conditions, or else, with this condition/exception,          
              otherwise                                                                           ¬condition/exception
       · in the same way, likewise, similarly ¬ comparison
       · by contrast, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, even then, even so¬contrast

1.6 A few more ways of Coordination
        I gave my brother a bow tie, and my sister-in-law a Banaras saree.
        I had the kitchen painted yellow and the living room blue.  
        I’m flying to Delhi tomorrow and to Kolkota the day after.
        I wrote a poem, and my brother, a short story.
        Sen completed the test in 40 minutes, and Babbar, in 50 minutes.
        India won the Cup in 1987 and the West Indies in 1991.
        My brother writes excellent short stories—and your brother, too.
        My brother—and your brother,too—writes excellent short stories.
        I play table tennis, and sometimes even chess.
        I felt angrier and angrier.
        We talked, talked and talked.
        They kept talking, talking, talking all night.
        I’ve said it again and again, but no one takes notice.
        She talked on and on and on.
        There are teachers and teachers. [roughly: ‘good and bad teachers’]       
        He is very, very, very good.
        Go and ask him what he wants.              

1.7 Idiomatic uses of coordination
    · A small group of verbs can precede and to give them a touch of informality:
       I’ll try* and come tomorrow.
         Try and finish quickly.
         They sat and talked for hours.
         Let’s sit and talk.
         Let’s stop and look at the map.
         He stopped and bought some flowers.
         Come and have your dinner.
         When did she last come and see you?
          I’ll go* and answer the door.
         Go and get me a glass of water.
         I wish the bus would hurry up and come.
         Hurry and open the present—I want to see what it is!  
Note: 1. * Try cannot be used in the past tense: He tried and saw us yesterday. (x)
          2. * Go can be used without ‘and’, especially in AmE:
                      Go ask your mom!     Go come tomorrow.
          3. Several of these combinations express speaker’s displeasure:
                  Don’t just stand there and grin.
                  He went and complained about us.
                  They’ve gone and upset her again.
                  Run and tell him to come here at once.
                  Why did you go and do a silly thing like that?

    · Adjectives like nice, good can also be used in pseudo-coordination:
                  The room is nice and warm.
                  His speech was nice and short.
                  It was lovely and cool in there.
                  The road is good and long. }
                  I hit him good and hard.     }(esp in AmE)
                  She drove good and fast.    }

1.8 The Intensifying use of coordination
        More, less with adjectives or adverbs, or the –er adjectives get repeated to indicate
        the increase in intensity:
                  She became more and more angry.
                  She became angrier and angrier
                  The car went more and more slowly.
                  The car went slower and slower.
                  The image on the screen became duller and duller.
                  As time passed, she saw less and less of all her old friends.

1.9 The continuative use of coordination
        Verbs get repeated to indicate a repeated and continuing process:
                  He talked and talked and talked.
                  We knocked and knocked.
                  They kept talking, talking, talking all night long.
         Adverbs also get repeated:
                  I’ve said it again and again, but she still takes no notice.
                  He kept saying ‘I don’t know’ over and over.
                  She talked on and on and on.
                  The balloon went up and up into the sky.
                  The balloon went up, up, up until it was a tiny speck in the sky.

1.10 Other uses of coordination
        · Nouns are also repeated to give different messages:
            There are teachers and teachers. [roughly: good and bad teachers]
            You can doctors and doctors.     [roughly: good and bad doctors]
            There was nothing but rain, rain, rain for almost a week. [nothing but rain]

        · Adjectives and intensifiers:
             He was an old, old man. [a very old man]
             He’s very, very, very good, I tell you. [extremely good]

        · A noun phrase with or so (to mean ‘approximately’):
             The week or so I spent with you is still fresh in my memory.
             I stayed a day or so in the hotel.
             We were in Chennai only for a day or two.
             I only have a hundred or so. Will that do?

        · Note the stereotyped expression:
             He’s an out and out liar. [=complete]
       
        · In informal speech, expressions like yes, no, well, OK, all right are often repeated for
           emphasis.

1.11 Abbreviations for coordination
        Incompletion of a list of items or things is indicated by certain expressions and
        abbreviations:       
                                                                                                        {so on.
        We discussed everything—when to start, where to stay and  {so forth.
                                                                                                         {so on and so forth.     
        The dances in the competition showed their skills in Bharatha Natyam, Bangra,
            Kutchipudi and the like. (=similar types of dance)
        We talked about the contract, pay etc.
        A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language is written by Quirk et al.                                                                 
1.12 More about Conjunctions
        · Both, either, neither           
             Both…and expresses emphatically a combination of two things:
                            The day was both cold and wet.
             Either…or  expresses two alternatives emphatically:
                             You can have either the blue one or the red one.
             Either…or + negative verb and neither…nor + affirmative verb express two
                alternatives negatively:
                              I won’t either agree or disagree= I’ll neither agree nor disagree. 

1.13 Incomplete sentences
      Generally, a conjunction cannot be used with just one clause:
           Because I was doing your shopping.
           And this Tuesday was particularly horrible.
      As you know, a conjunction joins two clauses, and the clauses are usually written as
      one sentence.

      But it’s possible to have two sentences separate, with the conjunction being placed at
      the beginning of the second sentence. This happens
                 (i) in conversation when two different people say the sentences:
                            ‘Why are you late?’   ‘Because I was doing your shopping.’
                (ii) when we give special emphasis to the second sentence:
                            I hate Tuesdays. And this Tuesday was particularly horrible.

1.14 Combining sentences without conjunctions
     · prepositional phrases
          He always comes late; in fact, he’s incapable of coming on time.
          His performance hasn’t improved; on the contrary, it has become worse.
          But what we’re after is not your concerns; on the other hand, the medical situation is
             very much your concern.
          While he drank the thin, oddly brackish brew, he took the measure of the place. In
             truth, there wasn’t much to see.       
     · punctuation marks
          I looked around the room. Deena was busy at his computer, Aanu was watching TV,
          Babu was sleeping, Nirmala was on the telephone. (commas)
          It was Lindros who’d stood behind Bourne, believed in him when the Old Man had put
            out a worldwide sanction against him. (commas)
          He doesn’t work hard; he’s incapable of hard work. (semi-colon)
          You’ve done extremely well; I’m happy about it. (semi-colon)  
          Once I was safe in my car—I checked the backseat again before getting in—I locked
            up.   (dashes)
          You’re not just answering to Ashes anymore—you’re answering to me. (dash)
          My mind tripped backward in time: I remembered the foster-family Christmases,
            when the real kids got the good presents,… (colon)
          Out on the street, he knew he had to walk a number of blocks before he found a taxi
            station: cabs were not the fashion in this section of Montparnasse… (colon)
___________________________________________________________________________        



2. Subordinators
Subordinating conjunctions connect pairs one of which is dependent on the other for completion of its message.

2.1These conjunctions occur in
a. noun clauses    
    They wanted to know how I escaped.
    He’s quite confident that he’ll get the job.
    I asked her whose side she was on.

b. adjective clauses (=defining and non-defining relative)     
    The woman that/who is near the bank is a divorcee.
    The book that/which has topped today’s sales is written by my brother.
    My father, who had been on a visit to the States, has returned.
    The Appollo Hospital, which can boast of 10,000 by-pass surgeries every year, is in India.

c. adverb clauses    (=manner, time, reason, purpose, concession, comparison, condition, result)
    I’ll do as I wish. Who are you to interfere?
     He ran as if his life depended on it.
     Stay where you are!
     Take the right fork when (where) the road splits into two.
     I won’t stop arguing until you see my way.
     I sold my TV because it was old.
     While you’re here, why don’t we discuss the problem? (time and reason)
     City schools close earlier than offices so that traffic snarls can be averted.
     Though it was an exciting game, no goals were scored.
     He ran so fast that I couldn’t catch him.
     The job is not so/as easy as you think.
     If you break the rule, you’ll be punished.
       
2.2 These convert simple sentences into subordinate clauses:
     · where, wherever, near, on the left, to the east                    ¬ spatial relation 
     · as, after, before, since, till, until, when, while, as soon as, immediately
        as long as, no…sooner than, by the time                            ¬temporal relation  
     · if, immediately, unless, provided that, only if, lest, in case ¬condition
       assuming, considering, excepting, given, granted }that      ¬condition
        granting ,provided, providing, seeing, supposing }  
     · although, though, even though, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that,
         even if                                                                                  ¬concession 
     · because, so, since, in that, in as much as¬causal 
     · so that, in that, in order that, for fear that, in the even that, such that¬purpose 
     · as, as though, as if, like                                                         ¬manner
     · more… than, as…as, so…as, less…than                               ¬comparison

2.3 Other subordinators
     · as…so
     · as    }          }
        so    }          }  …as
       such }          }
     · the                   the…
     
     · At    } the {first/next/    } {moment/instant/  } {that  }
        from }      {precise/very }{minute/time         } {when}

     · because of the fact that         }
        due to the fact that               }
        on account of the fact that    }= [because]
        in the light of the fact that    }
       
        in spite of the fact that          }
        despite the fact that              }= [although]
        regardless of the fact that     }

      · Like and as
         ‘Like’ is placed before nouns/pronouns:
          He fought like a madman,
          He ran like the wind.
          They were all dressed as clowns.
      But use ‘as’ before a clause of comparison:
          While in Rome, do as the Romans do.   
      Note: I worked as a slave. (=I was a slave)
                I worked like a slave. (=I worked very hard, but I was a free man)

      · For and because
         These have nearly the same meaning and very often either can be used. But there
         are some restrictions with regard to ‘for’:
             1. A for-clause cannot be placed before the main clause:
                     For it was raining heavily he took a taxi.  (x)
                     Because it was raining heavily he took a taxi. (correct)
             2. A for-clause cannot come before ‘not’, ‘but’ or any conjunction:
                       He stole not because he wanted the money but because
                       he liked stealing. (Here, ‘for’ is not possible.)
                3. A for-clause cannot be used as a response to a question:
                       ‘Why did you do it?’    ‘Because I was angry.’ (Here, ‘for’ is not possible.)
              4. A for-clause provides new information, and so cannot be used for repeating
                   information:
                   He spoke in German. She was angry because he had spoken in German.
                    (Here, ‘for’ is not possible.)
                  But 
                    She was angry for she couldn’t understand German. (Here ‘because’ is also
                     possible.)

       · as, when, while
             Use as when the second action occurs before the completion of the first:
                        As I left the house, I remembered the key.
             Use when when the second action occurs after the completion of the first:
                        When I left the house, I remembered the key.
             Use as for actions that progress simultaneously (that continue to occur together): 
                        As the sun rose the fog dispersed.
             Use when when one action occurs at the same as another:
                        When it is wet the buses are crowded. 
             As can mean while:
                        As I stood there I saw a policeman enter the bank.
             Note: There is no particular advantage in using as here, and while is safer.
               
                 As can mean because:
                        As a father, I have to think of my children’s future.
              As can mean though:
                      Painful as it was, he swung his legs and got gingerly to his feet (although it was
                           painful).
              While can mean but and is used to emphasize a contrast:
                      Some people waste food while others haven’t enough.
             While can mean although and is placed at the beginning of a sentence:
                      While I am willing to help, I do not much time available.
             When can be used instead of while in the meaning of although to introduce
                 an element of unreasonableness:
                      How can they expect to learn anything when they never listen? 

2.4 Other Subordinators
       The following expressions in italics are correlative subordinators:
            The more money you have, the more money you’ll want.
            You didn’t tell me whether I should write to the manager or whether I should see
               him personally. 
            If this year’s harvest is good, then we will not need to import wheat.
            He doesn’t earn as much as me.
            I was more ashamed than I have ever been.
            He had no sooner arrived than he asked for food.
            [No sooner had he arrived than he asked for food.]
      
2.5 Marginal subordinators
      The following expressions in italics are marginal subordinators:
            Even if you are ready for reconciliation, he will not be ready.
            If only you had let me know about this, I could’ve helped you.
            I recognized him the moment I saw him.
            Because of/Due to the fact that they didn’t read English, the villagers were
               unaware of what they were signing.
             Note: Avoid saying ‘…the fact that’; prefer ‘because’.

              In spite of/Despite the fact that I worked very hard, I wasn’t promoted.
              Note: Avoid saying ‘…the fact that’; use ‘though’, instead.

3. Errors:            
The following errors can crop up while using conjunctions:
i. double conjunctions:
                 Although she was tired, but she went to work.
                 Because I liked him, so I went out with him.
                 As you know, that I work hard.
              Use only one conjunction:    
                 Although she was tired, she went to work.             
           or 
                 She was tired, but she went to work. 
      
                 Because I liked him, I went out with him.
           or
                 I liked him, so I went out with him. 

                 As you know, I work very hard.      
           or
                 You know that I work very hard.

Note: two conjunctions can be used to join in to one more than two sentences:
              Although she was tired, she went to work but she didn’t stay there long. 

ii. Putting that together with ‘how’, ‘where’ or ‘whether’:
              I asked her that how she was getting on with her boss.
              I wondered that where she lived.
              I asked him that whether he understood my explanation.
To make these sentences acceptable remove ‘that’.

iii. Use of ‘it’ in relative clauses:
              She never listens to the advice which I give it to her. 
In this sentence, ‘which’ and ‘it’ refer to ‘advice’. Here are two sentences combined as one:
               She never listens to the advice. I give advice to her.
We join these two sentences with ‘which’ replacing ‘advice’ of the second sentence, so there is no need for the pronoun ‘it’.
               She never listens to the advice which I give her.

iv. Use of ‘that’ instead of ‘where’ or ‘when’:
              The house that I live is very small.
     This can be set right in two ways:
               The house where I live is very small.  (or) The house that I live in is very small.

Note: In spoken English, however, you’ll hear:
               The house I live in is very small.
 _________________________________________________________________________________